48o HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. path, but in spite of you I am j ustice personified. Thus I am more just than Noshirwan." At the present day there is a tendency, more especially among the " Young Persians," to disparage Nasir-u-Din, and the fact is adduced that he discouraged the sending of boys to school in Europe. But it is certain that the Shah was far ahead of his people, and although his attempts at reform may not always have been successful, they were indubitably genuine. Nasir-u-Din, if not exactly a great Shah, was the best ruler produced by the Kajar dynasty. The Financial Difficulties of Muzaffar-u~Din.— Muzaffar-u-Din, the Heir-Apparent, was at Tabriz at the time of his father's assassination. He was accompanied on his journey to Teheran by the British and Russian repre- sentatives. There were fears that his brothers might fight for the throne, but they hastened to proffer their allegiance, and the new monarch entered Teheran without opposition and was crowned in peace. It was generally believed that Nasir-u-Din had left a full treasury to his successor ; but upon examination it was found that little or no money had been saved and the rumours of hoarded millions were totally unfounded. The new Shah, whose health was bad, was most anxious to make a foreign tour almost immediately after his coronation. He desired more especially to undergo a cure at Contrex6ville; but doubtless he also wished to imitate his father's example and enjoy the delights of Europe. He was also surrounded by a hungry horde of followers, who mingled with their congratulations strong hopes of speedy reward for past services. The question of ways and means was thus one of urgency. Hitherto Persia had contracted no public debt, and it will always be remembered against Muzaffar-u-Din that during his reign this fatal step was taken. The Russian Bank.—Having described the foundation of the Imperial Bank of Persia, I must now make a brief reference to its Russian counterpart and rival, known first as the Banque des Prfos and now as the Banque dEscomfte de Perse. Chirol1 in his, valuable work points 1 The Middle Eastern Question, by Sir Valentine Chirol, 1903.